Cancers are multifactorial disease of unknown etiology. They can be based on several normal mechanisms gone wrong as in cases of genetics, aging and environmental problems, carcinogenic diets, sun exposure and others. Cancers are caused by process called carcinogenesis, in which there is abnormal growth of cells while division. Cancers can be distinguished from normal cells variable tests and chemical assay. Cancers are known to affect every organ in body, every age group and residents of the entire world. Cancers caused by sun mainly affects skin and rarely blood, etc.
What are the cancers caused by exposure of the sun?
If you are a tropical area inhabitant, sun exposure is your main concern. About the types of cancers caused by exposure to the sun, the most prominent is melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Melanoma is made up of melanocyte and most serious among cancers of skin caused by sun exposure. Basal cell and squamous cell cancers are difficult to differentiate. Exposure to the sun during winter also puts you on same risk as in summer.
What causes cancers due to sunlight exposure?
Sunlight is a mixture of different types of lights. Few of them are highly damaging to the skin, infra-red and ultraviolet (UV) light exposure are important etiological factors in causing cancers. UV light is of three types, short, long and sunburn wave. In the beginning, there is low potential lesion for cancers to occur called actinic keratosis that finally leads to cancers caused by sun exposure. Another aggressive form of cancers caused by sun exposure is Kaposi sarcoma known to result in immune compromised state. Sun exposure is the biggest factor to etiology of such cancers. There is history of prolong sun exposure as occupational exposure or childhood sun burns, etc. The sun rays causes the cells in skin layers cause uncontrolled damaging division of these cells. There are ethnicity issues in relation to occurrence of basal cell, squamous cell and melanoma cancers. Other risks of cancers are age, family history, previous radiotherapy and chemical exposure with a weak immune system.
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How sun exposure caused cancers be avoided and treated?
Sun exposure for many years results in cancers. There are preventive approaches such as to reduce sun exposure, use protective clothing, wearing sunscreen on exposed areas, and getting skin burns and spots examined regularly. These cancers are far more common in tropical areas and in places where sun shines brightly and people work in open environments for long hours. Treatment options are available for low grade cancers with good prognosis. Complete excision with metastatic removal of lesion from other organs results in treated lesions, but in some cases a grim prognosis is expected due to lack of seeking medical care for such lesions.