The human genome is a complex entity of the body. An alteration of a single gene would result to various forms of abnormalities. The problem with gene mutation is that as of today, technology itself has offered limited possibilities to treat and diagnose individuals containing altered genes in their system. In reality every human being is a product of genetic make-up taken from both parent’s original genes. From there, chances that each individual may inherit mutated genes are within countless possibilities. Maybe it will not exhibit in the present day but it may manifest to the future generations of your ancestral line. However, most of these abnormalities only occur whenever environmental factors are present to aggravate the condition. Others need additional genetic modification for it to develop. To be completely aware, the question is, what are common diseases one can inherit?
There are various factors to be considered regarding the development of genetic disorders. Certain types of these disorders like cystic fibrosis need to have at least two mutated replica of the gene in order to extend. Carriers are individuals who received only one copy of this gene. They will not develop any genetic disease of this type however their children may inherit the disease. Another mode of development is when only one muted replica of a certain gene is needed in order to develop. The disease may not always progress. However, there is a high possibility of developing it. Some genetic disorders are only passed by the mother. This happens because of the theory that almost all mitochondrial DNA is enclosed in the female egg cell. The genetic disease develops when several damaged and malfunctioned replicas of mitochondrial DNA are transferred to the child. Lastly, some genetic disorders have higher risks for males than females. It is because of the X and Y chromosome that are present in male genes. Males only need to inherit one mutated X chromosome to acquire a certain genetic disorder. For females who have XX chromosomes they need to acquire two mutated X chromosomes to develop the disease.
Some common disorders that one can inherit are Alzheimer’s disease, sickle cell anaemia, lactose intolerance and cancer. Alzheimer’s disease is a disorder that manifests as mental lapses. As it progresses, the inability to use the cognitive side of the brain worsen. Sickle cell anaemia is a blood disorder where in sickle shape haemoglobins are formed. Lactose intolerance is another hereditary disease. It is the inability of an individual to process milk sugar due to the lack of lactase, an enzyme used to metabolize lactose. Cancer is another genetic disorder that can be transferred from parent to child. However, these genes lie dormant unless environmental factors trigger the mutation of the cell to form cancer cells. There are more hereditary diseases that one can have, further research is necessary to be fully aware.
Tips and comments
For any hereditary diseases to be controlled, it is advisable that genetic testing is done for both parents and child. This will allow parents to limit the exposure of their child to certain factors that might trigger the manifestation of the disease. In cases that mutated genes are dormant to any parent, inform your children of the risk they are facing. Hiding the truth to your children may only result to further damage. Information is a great tool to pass on to your children whether it is optimistic or pessimistic information.