Non communicable diseases also known ad non-infectious diseases are not caused by any germ. These diseases cannot spread from person to person, they are therefore non-transmissible. Non communicable diseases are caused due to improper functioning of the body organs, for example diabetes, heart attack etc.
Types of non communicable diseases
1] Metabolic diseases
Also known as organic diseases are caused due to the malfunctioning of various body organs. Diabetes is one good example of such diseases. In these disease, pancreas fail to produce sufficient insulin, the hormone which controls the sugar level in the blood. Therefore, sugar starts passing out in urine.
In the case of heart diseases such as, heart attack or coronary thrombosis, blood supply to the heart muscles is obstructed and the cardiac muscles fail to function properly.
Nephrons in the kidneys help filter out harmful nitrogenous waste materials from our blood and throw them out from the body in the form of urine. If for certain reasons, the kidneys fail to function properly, these toxic wastes get accumulated in the blood and cause disease known as uraemia.
2] Congenital diseases or genetic diseases
Diseases that develop from the embryonic stage because of defects in genes and chromosomes transmitted from parents are called genetic diseases.
Blood clotting in this disease occurs slowly. This happens due to lack of special aspects in the blood.
Defective haemoglobin in the RBC causes this disease. People suffering from such defects need frequent blood transfusion.
Allergy is an unpredictable reaction to a particular substance. This type of substance is called allergen. Different are allergic to different substances. A few common allergens are dust, spores, pollen, certain clothes, particular medicines, cosmetics etc. The common areas of the body parts which are affected by allergies are skin, respiratory and digestive tracts. Asthma, eczema, diarrhoea, vomiting, nausea etc. are some of the common allergic reactions.
4] Dietary diseases
A diet lacking in nutrients such as proteins required for the growth and repair of the body, results in degeneration of muscles and body weight. Some of the examples are protein deficiency diseases are kwashiorkor and marasmus.
Vitamin deficiency diseases are night blindness, pellagra, scurvy and beri-beri.
Human body requires different mineral salts. The deficiency of minerals gives rise to diseases like anaemia, goitre, rickets, fluorosis etc.
5] Cancer or uncontrolled growth of body cells
Cancer is caused due to some of the important factors like smoking, tobacco, chewing, addictive drugs, pollution, radiation and even viruses. Agents which cause caner are called carcinogens.
6] Degenerative diseases
With age deterioration occurs in the structure and functioning of body cells and organs. Some of the diseases which occur due to old age are cataract, arthritis, arteriosclerosis etc.
7] Diseases caused due to physical and chemical agents
Sunburn and heat stroke are examples of some diseases caused by physical agents. Chemical agents which cause diseases are lead, mercury, potassium, cyanide, snake bite, poisoning from plants etc.
Tips and comments
Proper diagnose and timely medication can keep non communicable diseases in control. Good care and certain precautionary measure must be followed to prevent non communicable diseases from getting bad to worse.