White Blood Cells are one of the components in blood. The WBC is also known as leukocytes. There are five different types of white blood cells: lymphocytes, neutrophils (also called granulocytes), eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes. Each type of WBC plays a different role in protecting the body’s immune system. A lack of white blood cell can be caused by many different diseases. A reduced count of white blood cells means a weak immune system, inability to fight against the foreign particles. The disorders caused due to lack of white blood cells are Neutropenia, AIDS, lymphocytopenia, Agranulocytosis, Leukopenia.
Neutropenia is caused due to reduced number of neutrophils in the blood. The reduced count of neutrophils on diagnosis will be 2000. The medications and the treatment depend upon the cause for the disease to occur.
HIV/AIDS: The AIDS is caused due to HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). The HIV as soon as enters the body, it attacks the white blood cells and thereby the immune system gets weak day by day. Hence there is a reduction in the count of white blood cells in AIDs infected person.
Lymphocytopenia: Reduced number of lymphocytes in the blood leads to lymphocytopenia. Chronic infections and hereditary disorders are some of the causes of the disease. The treatment is given depending upon the cause.
Agranulocytosis is a disease caused by destruction of neutrophils. The destruction may be caused to the certain types of drugs. Major symptoms include fatigue, sleeplessness, restlessness, headache, chills, high fever (often up to 105° F.), sore mouth and throat. White blood cell count on diagnosis will be found as 500 to 2,000. Antibiotic therapy is to be followed to stop the bacterial invasion. If in severe cases, fresh blood is necessary to make the body resistant.
Leukopenia is also like agranuocytes. It also results in reduction of circulating white blood cells and the count is less than 5,000. The major reason for the disease is due to allergic reactions to some chemical or drug.
Leukemia is a cancer of the white blood cells which can affect any types of WBC. At initial stage one abnormal cell will be present. Later on the single abnormal cell multiple and thereby reduction of normal WBC in the blood. These abnormal cells do not perform normal functions of WBC like fight against infections. Since there is an inhibition of production of other WBCs, this disease too lack white blood cells occurs. the patients with leukemia may have frequent infections, fatigue, bleeding, bruising, anemia, night sweats, and bone and joint pain.
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Various diseases caused by the lack of white blood cells are discussed above. The absence of white blood cells leads to weak immune system. If the immune system gets weak, various kinds of diseases can be easily spreaded in the body and even bacterial and viral invasions are easy. Later on, those bacteria and viruses will attack various organs and can serious diseases. One of the example of such kind is AIDS