Breasts, the most delicate parts of female anatomy, are beautiful gifts of nature to women. They undergo several structural and functional changes during menstruation, pregnancy, menopause and hormonal secretion. They define and differentiate a female. Diet, rest, body changes and external environmental factors play an important role in their development. Nowadays, various types of breast diseases have grown popular amongst females.
In this article, we shall discuss about widespread breast diseases and their causes.
Hyperplasia: It’s described as an outgrowth of lobules or breast ducts that produce milk. This phenomenon occurs during breast enlargements and is caused by hormonal dysfunctions, chronic inflammatory response or enhanced cell division to compensate for a damaged tissue layer or disease.
Cysts: Lumps or cysts are common breast diseases diagnosed in middle aged women. They occur due to changes in fibrous breast tissues resulting in development of fluid filled sacs. Estrogen dominance is the main cause of this disorder. Increased quantities of estrogen may also lead to pain, discomfort and irritation.
Tumors: Malignant forms of cancerous cells or tumors are formed due to abnormal nipple discharge. Many factors contribute to tumors however the prominent reason is mutation or damage of BRCA 1 and BRCA2 genes that act as tumor suppressants and participate in cell cycle. Exposure of these genes to deteriorating conditions may lead to tumor formation. They cause cancer and other severe breast diseases, if not diagnosed and treated on time.
Abscess: It is an infectious disease in which breast cells are filled with pus. They’re generally caused due to bacterial infection (causative agent: Staphylococcus aureus) and lead to inflammation, tenderness, sore skin and pain.
Fibroadenomas: It is one of the commonest breast diseases occurring at menopause or during middle age (generally 30-40 years). The prominent cause of this disorder is excessive use of birth control pills before 20 years of age. The exact cause of this disease is not yet known however scientists are of this view that chemicals present in contraceptive pills cause hormonal imbalance (enhanced levels of estrogen) which may lead to development of solid lumps or outgrowths. They do not cause pain but they should be immediately cured else they will result in tumors and cancer.
Fibrocystic Breast Disease: Although this doesn’t come under breast diseases however it is a disorder in which there is a marked increase in number of glandular or fibrous tissues in the breast region. This may occur simultaneously in both the breasts and may cause nodular cysts, noncancerous lumpiness, tenderness, fluid filled cysts and sore tissues.
The chief cause of this disease is hormonal imbalance during menstruation or during pregnancy. Progesterone and estrogen are two important hormones that direct breast tissues to multiple or grow. Irregular distribution of these hormones can lead to rapid division of cells.
Breast Cancer: Lastly, breast cancer ranks amongst widespread breast diseases that are growing at an alarming rate. They occur because of untreated tumors and lumps.
Tips and comments
These were some common breast diseases found in women. All females should be familiar with these disorders so that they can successfully control and prevent them in future.