A non-communicable disease is one that cannot be transmitted from one infected host to another. These diseases are non-contagious in nature. Examples of some non-contagious diseases are heart disease, hyper tension, cancer and allergies. These diseases are referred to as NCDs and are not caused due to the action of any pathogen but due to some other reasons. A non–communicable disease is not infectious and may be caused because of a wrong lifestyle such as improper diet, too much drinking, excessive smoking or even by genetic factors. However, they may be spread by heredity and behavior of the affected persons.
Non-communicable diseases are not something new; they are as old as the mankind itself. They are chronic in nature, and are responsible for at least 60% of the deaths around the world each year! Of the 60 million deaths reported all over the world in 2009, at least 38 million were deaths due to chronic diseases such as cancer, heart diseases, asthma and other respiratory diseases, chronic kidney diseases, stroke, high cholesterol and such other diseases.
Except for those acquired from heredity, most of these diseases are regarded as preventable because you can avoid them by following a specific lifestyle and having control over your behavior. Experts have identifies some basic reasons for persons developing these non-communicable diseases. Cholesterol level, blood pressure, lifestyle, level of tobacco and/or liquor consumption, environment, sex, heredity and social and economic conditions of the person are the basic features that you must look for while considering to treat the affected person as required. Most of the deaths that are occurring because of chronic diseases are of the mid aged persons and half of them are females. So, you can infer that there is no genetic preference involved; they have an almost equal affinity towards both men and women.
Tips and comments
It has been found that by following a strict lifestyle and specific diet, almost 80% of the heart diseases, obesity related disorders, strokes and type 2-diabetes, and 40% of the cancers can be avoided. Lifestyles with strict adherence to healthy diet and a higher physical activity can play a major role in controlling most of the non-communicable diseases.
It is also note worthy that most of the deaths due to chronic diseases are being reported from the third world and under developed countries. Awareness and early diagnosis can bring down the death toll to a maximum extent as such. In order to control non-communicable diseases in the community, authorities may opt for some of the following measures.
There has to be community oriented mass media campaigns to make aware of the public about the harmful effects of excessive use of tobacco and alcohol, promote the habits of a healthy diet and encourage physical activity.
Establish free diagnosis and check up camps in local health care centers and persuade people to start the diagnosis as soon as the symptoms begin to appear.
Develop a comprehensive National Health Policy including nutrition, drug control, etc. to control NCDs.