Common eye diseases are the eye problems that do exist in high frequency in general public and are a huge part of health sector budget. From refractive error to that of glaucoma and cataract, the treatment is highly specific and highly responsive for almost all the common eye diseases. The eye problems are an important health issue depending upon the etiology of disease. The common eye diseases are seen in all people, how many of us use spectacles? How many are getting cataract operation, infections are even more commoner and the cancer is last but not the least. The knowledge to common eye diseases is a necessity as one can counter them in any of the daily life situation and eyes are the vital most and delicate organs in body. Any age, sex and ethnic personal is equally prone to get any of the common eye diseases.
The most common eye diseases in our settings are:
- Refractive errors: A problem with the defective eye sight is refractive error. It can be for far vision, when a person cannot see near objects but can see the far objects with more precision. The other kind is near sightedness in which the near objects are precisely seen while far objects are not. The former makes driving, flying and looking at target difficult while the later makes reading, writing and sewing etc. tough.
- Cataract: The white opacity in which the lens of the eye is involved, that makes the vision blurred and the white lesion that appears in the central area of eye is white. This one of the common eye diseases is more common than one can think. The reason behind occurrence of this disease is congenital infections, age, trauma and metabolic abnormalities. Age being the commonest cause’s people in 40s to seek help and also it appears in the other eye too, later on. This is also called cloudy eye. Far vision is disturbed and patient feels halo and stressed eye sight.
- Eye strokes: Among common eye diseases the eye strokes holds significance as emergency treatment if not provided may result in blindness of the patient. The pressure here in eye and that on the posterior curtain of eye is raised which can deteriorate the condition to worse.
- Corneal ulcers: Any infection to the corneal surface of eyes lead to ulcerated epithelium which may get infected by microorganisms. This is offensive and painful condition that can cause more damage. Common eye diseases like ulcers are seen in unhygienic conditions. And are known to hurt the more than expected. The ulcer if gets complicated may cause vision loss.
- Retinal detachment: Retina is the main part of vision. It contains the receptors and pigments and axons of vision. It’s the most serious of all the common eye diseases. The sudden vision loss is the answer to it. The lesion can be due to systemic causes like hypertension or diabetes or due to local disorder.
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Treatment for common eye diseases:
Common eye diseases can be treated by eye drops, ointments and laser and surgery etc. The refractive errors can be treated by use of spectacles, contact lenses, laser and occasionally some kind of surgery. The next problem is treated by cataract surgery and its various highly effective types are in practice. Glaucoma is treated with drugs and surgery. The infections and ulcers are controlled with antibiotics and supportive medication. The detachment of retina needs emergency surgery and laser photo coagulation therapy. All the treatments taken in time bring good prognosis.