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Female Infertility - Tubal Diseases, Causes & Treatments

Introduction

Tubal disease is a disorder that results to the blockage or damage of the fallopian tubes. Tubal female diseases is the major cause of infertility since they restrict formation of the egg and subsequent embryo to move from the ovary to the uterus. Endometriosis is the main factor behind tubal female diseases. Tubal female diseases can be caused by a disease condition that is unintentional or by intentional tubal blockage. Reconstructive tubal surgery is so far the best way to correct tubal blockage.

Causes of tubal female diseases

Scar tissue: This on of the main causes of tubal diseases. It results fro endometriosis, gynecological surgery, bowel surgery, cesarean section, internal trauma or ruptured appendix.

Sexually transmitted diseases: The sexually transmitted diseases which go unnoticed and untreated such as gonorrhea and chlamydia often damage the fallopian tube irreparably causing female tubal diseases.

Tubal ligation: Having the fallopian tubes tied to prevent pregnancy or reversal tubal ligation also damage the fallopian tubes and end up causing female tubal diseases.

When the fallopian tubes contain scars or adhesions around them, they tend to block the egg and subsequent embryo from reaching the uterus thus infertility is caused. If the fallopian tubes are partially blocked, the sperm meets the egg in the fallopian tube and an ectopic pregnancy occurs.

Diagnosis of tubal female diseases

Tubal female diseases can be diagnosed through running a couple of diagnostic test which include:

  • Diagnostic Laparoscopy: This is a procedure in which a thin lighted telescope known as laparoscope is inserted into the abdominal cavity through the small incision or near the belly button. The doctor is able to visualize the area surrounding the fallopian tubes and ovaries through the laparoscope. The doctor is able to confirm the presence and severity of any adhesions. During this procedure, the doctor may be able to remove the scar tissues attached to the fallopian tube.
  • Sonohysterogram: This is a procedure that uses ultrasound to detect any masses in the uterus that may be causing blockage of the fallopian tubes and other tubal female diseases.
  • Hysterosalpingogram(HSG): An x-ray procedure that uses a special contrast dye injected into the fallopian tubes to test/see if they are blocked or open.

How to treat tubal female diseases

There are two main approaches that are used to treat tubal female diseases. They are tubal surgery and in vitro fertilization.

In Vitro Fertilization: This procedure replaces the the functions of the fallopian tube with laboratory and other minor surgical procedures that result in fertilization of the egg that is then transferred to the uterine cavity. However, this is a complicated procedure that requires extreme use of large hormone doses to stimulate ovaries. This use of the hormone doses can cause ovarian hyper-stimulation and an increased rate of multiple pregnancies.

Tubal surgery: There are three main tubal surgery techniques.

  1. Tubal implantation: It is also known as uterotubal implantation or tubouterine implantation. It is used to correct the proximal tubal female diseases at the junction of the uterus and the fallopian tubes. The blocked area is by passed by through creating another new opening in the uterus and inserting a healthy fallopian tube to the uterine cavity.
  2. Tubal Anastomosis: It is also known as tubotubal anastomosis or tubal reanastomosis. This treatment is applicable when the tubal female diseases affect the area between the uterus and the fimbrial end of the tube. It involves the removal of the blocked segment and then joining the remaining two open segments together.
  3. Salpingostomy: It is also known as neosalpingostomy. Salpingostomy means creating anew opening in he fallopian tube. This operation is meant to correct the tubal distal occlusion which is usually at or near the fimbrial end of the tube and is caused by endometriosis or fimbriectomy.

Tubal surgery may result to increased rate occurrence of tubal pregnancy.

By winnie mwihaki, published at 03/06/2012
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