The Eczema is an inflammatory reaction of the skin, which can start with the formation of vesicles, and can continue with erythema, edema, papules, scabs, finishing with the lichenification and skin scaling. Eczema diseases are usually characterized by itching and a burn sensation of the skin. Also known under the name of atopic dermatitis, eczema is a very common problem of the skin. However, there are also many other forms of eczema, as for example: contact eczema, seborheic eczema, nummular eczema, neurodermatitis, stasis dermatitis and dyshidrotic eczema. Eczema diseases are usually starting from infancy, but they can also appear in childhood or adulthood.
Causes of eczema
Even if eczema diseases are not contagious, there are studies showing that these can be inherited, and therefore it can be common to see members of the same family affected by this condition. The exact causes of eczema are not known, but this can appear as the combination of an abnormal functioning of the immune system, with a miss-function of the skin’s barrier system. Some studies are showing that those affected by atopic dermatitis are having some gene defects, leading to an abnormality of some proteins that are responsible for maintaining the barrier of the skin. Other eczema diseases forms can be triggered by various substances contained in cosmetics, soaps, detergents, clothing, sweat or jewelry. The environmental allergens can also be the cause of eczema outbreaks. Other people can develop eczema if they are affected by stress, or by sudden temperature changes.
Once the eczema gets underway, it does not go away quickly. The most common symptoms for eczema diseases are the reddened and dry skin, that can burn and itch, but the symptoms can vary from a person to another. Most of the people diagnosed with eczema complained about an intense itching. In some cases eczema diseases can lead to oozing lesions and blisters, and if the affected area is scratched repeatedly, it can lead to the formation of scabs. Babies, children and adults can all be affected by eczema and any region of their body as well. For infants the eczema symptoms might appear on their cheeks, forehead, neck, scalp, forearms and legs, while at children and adults this can occur on the neck, face, and inside of the knees, elbows and ankles. Eczema symptoms can be present for few hours or days, but sometimes can persist for a long period of time.
The treatment of eczema has the goal of preventing the itching, the inflammation and further complications. An efficient treatment can combine the change of the lifestyle with the medication. Only professional doctors can establish the right treatment, as this has to be adapted to the age, general health status and the severity of each person. Very important is to maintain always hydrated the skin, by applying special creams and ointments, especially after the bath. Creams with corticosteroid can be prescribed for reducing the inflammation of the skin, and in severe symptoms oral antihistamine drugs can be taken. Some immune suppressant drugs as Tacrolimus and Pimecrolimus can now be used with success for treating eczema symptoms.