Diseases Diseases

What Are the Different Types Of Genotypes

Introduction

Genotypes are the sole genetic properties of each individual. They are the like system code or input data for the appearance of different traits in accordance with the environmental conditions provided. Genotypes form the basis of appearance of phonotypical trait in an individual. The genotypes form the genetic makeup of a cell, an organism, or an individual (i.e. the specific genetic data of specific individual) usually in accordance to a specific character under consideration. Genes expressed are phenotypes or the external appearance and the information on which these expressions are based is called genotypes. Genotypes forms the main part of dominance (genetics) as even the minutest mutation in a single strand of protein of this coded information results into alteration of the human being phenotype evolved out of this data i.e. because of his malformed genotype. A person gets his genotype from his both parents’ genotypes as will be explained further.

History

As known that every human gets his genetics from both his parental genotypes; the resultant genotypes of every human are all newly designed significant and solely confined to his own self while including dominance pattern to appear as a trait by trait or the phenotypes. Dominance pattern in like a board game, inter playing relationship between the alleles of genes, in this game one allele (part) takes over and masks the expression of another allele. In the simplest example, if a gene exists in two allelic forms (say A & B); three patterns of genotypes can be possibly seen: AA, AB, and BB. A can be dominant on B, where sometimes both works in a homozygote like in AA or BB.

 

Features

This way of genetic data expression in genotype leads to the various form of a single genus of organism. Different type of genotypes have varied from area to area as time has made changes to the invasion of one environment by several kinds of genotypes holder’s and their mating along with environmental changes like evolution simple process: surely the result of various kind of genotypes appearance pattern involve genetic principles like multiple alleles(many parts), complete (one allele taking over), in complete (one allele taking more part relative to other), co-dominance (both allele share) and autosomal vs. sex linked patterns. Genotyping is the process of exploring the genotypes of individuals with a biological assay machine/ laboratory testing.


Genotypes commonly found are:
A kind of dystrophy; affects brain, adrenals and may result in death.
AL port syndromecauses kidney damage and hearing loss.
Infertility due to androgen insensitivity syndrome
A syndromeaffecting nervous system performance and defectiveimmune system
Myopathycause effects in cell nuclei are abnormally located in skeletal muscle cells
A disorder of nervescharacterized byloss of muscle tissue and touch sensation
A syndromecauses mental retardationand growth problems, cardiac abnormalities, auditory and visual loss
Lysosomes storage disease causing ocular pain and other problems
A Syndrome causing hearing loss, heart valves thickening, a decline in cardiac function, obstructive airway disease, sleep apnea, and spleenomegaly all together
Kennedy disease causingmuscle cramps and progressive weakness
Ophthalmic problems, intellectual disabilities, aminoaciduria, reduced renal ammonia function and rickets all covers in Lowe’s syndrome
Coarse hair, retarded growth, nervous system defects are features of Meknes disease
Cataracts and white reflex in aye caused by TORCH infections
Various skeletal deformations
Simpson syndromerecognized bycoarse facial features
Gene mutationcausingspinalmuscle weakness
Eczema, thrombocytopenia, immune deficiency, and bloody diarrhea are all part of Aldrich syndrome
X-linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID): infections, usually causing death in infants

By Ali Javed, published at 02/07/2012
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