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What Are the Common Phenotypes

Introduction

Phenotypes are the trait that appears in an individual. Phenotypes are known to be effected by environment plus genotype. Phenotypes are the genetic endowment of the individual. It’s the system coded data that is expressed for the appearance of different traits in accordance with the environment provided. Phenotypes are basis of appearance of an individual. The phenotypes are also known as the genetic expression of a cell, an organism, or an individual (i.e. the specific allele makeup of the individual) usually with reference to a specific character under consideration.

History

Expressed genes are called as phenotype or the appearance and the data on which these expressions base are called genotypes. Phenotypes are also the main part of dominance (genetics) as a small mutation in a single protein results into alteration of the human being evolved out of this data i.e. his phenotypes are changed as compare with the regular phenotypes of the individuals of that area. A person gets his genetics from his parental genetics as explained further, so he is said to be having similar phenotypes as them: and this is the same reason people recognize you at the mall by calling them you, your grandparents names or face cut etc.

Features

As a man gets his genetics from both his parents’ genotype; the resultant phenotypes of this man is all new significant phenotypes of his own and this will include dominance pattern to appear as a trait by trait phenotypes. Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of a gene, in which one allele masks the expression of another allele at the same locus (point of gene origin on a chromosome). In the simplest case, where a gene exists in two allelic forms (designated A & B), three combinations of alleles (genotypes) are possible: AA, AB, and BB. If AA and BB individuals (homozygotes) show different forms of the trait (phenotype), and AB individuals (heterozygotes) show the same phenotypes as AA individuals, then allele A is said to dominate or be dominant to or show dominance to allele B, and B is said to be recessive to A. If instead AB has the same phenotypes as BB, B is dominant to A.

Common phenotypes

Phenotypes of human:

Blood types: A+, B+, AB+, AB-, O+, O-

Hair &eye color: Brown, Black.

Height: Short, Long.

No of fingers: 5, 6.

Color of skin: white, brown, black.

Shape of hair: straight, wavy, curly, mixed.

Shape of nail: cuboidal, asymmetrical.

Teeth: symmetrical, asymmetrical, cavities etc.

Tongue: rolling, non-rolling.

Ear lobes: attached, nonattached.

Phenotypes of animals:

Skin color, Shapes of hoofs, Shapes of horns, Shape of feeding organs, Color and shape of covering of shelled organisms, length of neck.

Phenotypes of plants:

Color of fruit, Taste of fruit, Color and shape of flowers, length of stem, leaves shape, Shape of thorns, Petals color and shape.

Phenotypes of birds:

Shape and Size of beak, Length of feathers, shape and size of feet, color of birds’ body and tail, altered bone structures of skeleton.

By Ali Javed, published at 02/01/2012
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