The nervous system is a complex system that regulates and coordinates the body's basic functions and activities. The neverous system is of two types central and peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system consists of brain and spinal cord. If disease is caused in the spinal cord it is considered as myelopathy and in case of brain encephalopathy. In some cases both part of the central nervous system can also be affected. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord. The neurological diseases are Alzheimer’s disease, Cerebral palsy, Dementia, Encephalitis, Guillain-Barre Syndrome, Huntington’s disease, meningitis, Multiple sclerosis, Neurofibromatoses, Parkinson’s Disease, Stroke and so on. A few major brain diseases are dealt here.
Alzheimer’s disease is the irreversible deterioration of brain cells in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus due to which loss of cognitive functions such as memory, movement coordination, pattern recognition, judgment and reasoning occurs. Moreover the death of nerve cells occurs in vital parts of the brains.
Cerebral palsy affects mainly in infancy or early childhood period which result in permanent retardation in body movements and muscle coordination. This disorder occurs due to abnormal development of the cerebral motor cortex during fetal growth or after birth. However, the damage is cannot be modified and the resulting disabilities are permanent.
Dementia is a progressive loss of memory, reasoning and cognitive functions impairing the abilities. Hence it affects the normal day-to-day activities.
Encephalitis is an acute infection and inflammation of the brain which shows swelling of the brain. Viruses which cause the disease are the family of Arboviruses.
Guillain-Barre Syndrome affects the peripheral nervous system in which the body’s own immune get attacked. These diseases mainly occur with symptoms of respiratory or gastrointestinal viral infection. It is considered as autoimmune disease.
Huntington’s disease (HD) is a fatal, hereditary and neurodegenerative disorder with abnormalities with emotional, behavioral, psychiatric leading to loss of intellectual or cognitive functions. It is considered as a genetic disorder of the central nervous system.
Meningitis is the Infection of the meninges and cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord. It is also known as Meningococcal diseases. Viral meningitis is less severe, as compared to bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis may be severe and result in brain damage.
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, autoimmune disease which affects the nerve fibers in the central nervous system. Due to the damage of myelin sheath, disruption of signals is blocked.
Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a chronic, neurodegenerative movement disorder which affects the small black colored cluster of cells in the basal ganglia located in the Centre of brain.
Stroke is also called as brain attack. It is considered as brain injury caused by a sudden interruption in the blood supply of the brain. The interruption may be either due to blood supply to brain is suddenly interrupted, or because a blood vessel in the brain ruptures
Neurofibromatoses which comprises three genetically distinct nervous related, non-contagious, whereby tumors develop in cells that make up the myelin sheath.
Tips and comments:
The major brain diseases are fatal and are genetic disorders. Hence most disease conditions cannot be treated due to impairment in genes. Since the brain controls major signals of our body, if it get affected can lead to death or the survival time of life get reduced due to the disease severity. The day to day activities are disturbed and more abnormal symptoms are found.
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