Bark is the outermost cortical layer of the stems and roots of the woody plants. It is more than often that these woody plants, including woody vines and shrubs, suffer from diseases due to parasitic microorganisms infecting them.
The tree bark diseases which can normally be seen most common among the plants are bleeding, blight, blister, bronzing, sooty bark disease, conk, canker, decline, chlorises, dieback, Emergence holes, Fecal specks, Frass, Gall, Gallery, Girdling roots, Honeydew, beech scale insect, Leaf spot, Lesion, Necrosis, Pustule, Rot, Rust, Scab, Skeletonization, Scorch, Shot-hole, Sooty mold, Symptom, Tent, Tunnel, Web, Wilt, Window-panin, Witches’ broom, insect exit holes, fruit bodies.
Mostly the trees infected by the tree bark diseases are those which are already weakened by the environmental factors like droughts, toxic chemicals, freezing injuries and poor nutrition. Among all these above stated diseases the most commonly occurring and experienced in the tree barks are the cankers which are the most destructive and difficult to manage as compared to other tree bark diseases. The cankers have different types classified on the basis of their symptoms. Discussing the symptoms of tree bark diseases normally evident as an indication of existence of probable tree bark disease are.
Nectar cankers are symptom zed by bright, salmon pink, which turn black as the age of the plant increases, fungal pads that come out from diseased or dead bark and clusters of tiny, red spheres on the bark surface which are actually the spore producing bodies.
In case of Eutypella cankers as a tree bark disease the symptoms are usually blackening of bark by reproductive bodies of the pathogen, however, the affected stem of the tree remains attached to the rest of the plant body whereas the diseased or decayed part of the tree wood often breaks during strong winds.
Valsa canker is a tree bark disease characterised by presence of elongated shallow cankers on the bark often bearing numerous discrete fungal pustules black in colour. And there is a possibility that these pustules may form a crusty black film on the bark with the passage of time
Bleeding canker is a tree bark disease with its symptoms as sap flowing out from the bark fissures that are located on the lower part of the stem. As a result the wood behind wet areas becomes dead and colour turns reddish brown. In some cases there are chances that the infected tree displays dieback in its crown. Another tree bark disease called Beech bark disease, mostly affecting American beech trees develops small white scales appearing on the bark of the tree, is extremely destructive and known for killing even some largest trees as well.
Another tree bark disease called Galls and Burls exhibits tumour growths and multiple galls on red and sugar maple stems and branches as very common
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Moreover among honey locust diseases the tree bark diseases involve decolouration and dieback of the bark and most probably seen around the wounds on the tree bark or tree stubs. Sudden oak death is a disease characterized by cankers forming on the stem with Dark spots on bark with exuding thick brown to tar black sap seeping from trunk.
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